Land tenure security for men and women: Evidence from a randomized control trial in Uganda – Pilot Household Level Intervention

The GIL intervention is supplementary to SLAAC; both aiming to deliver land titles but the GIL intervention is seeking to deliver more joint titles to marital partners. The two interventions will be implemented by two separate organisations.  SLAAC is a parish wide undertaking, while the GIL intervention is targeted, implementable only in randomly selected villages within a selected SLAAC parish and only in randomly selected households within those villages. Associates Research is expected to design and implement actions and incentives that result in the 4 experimental units/ villages in the parish receiving land tiles as per expectations.

Protecting Women’s Land Rights under Customary Tenure in Northern Uganda ‘Comparisons between CCOs and Land Titles’

Titling and CCOs are both possible pathways to protecting women’s land rights in northern Uganda. This paper uses CCO and land titles applications data and Key informant interviews to attempt to argue the viability of either pathway in protecting women’s land rights. Preliminary indications are that CCOs are more inclusive to women than titles on account of the manner in which the application process is implemented. The process is more often than not results in higher numbers of women getting enrolled. However, questions remain on the person attributes of the women that actually get included and also on how the decision to include these women is made.

Improving land tenure security for women-A women first approach 2014

Co-existing customary and statutory land tenure systems are the norm across Africa.  Women’s land rights are at the nexus of these two systems; often, statutory laws provide protections to women that do  not exist in customary law.  Yet, not only  is customary law more influential in many  rural areas, but it is also gaining statutory recognition across the region. This creates a problem. While there is much  to be gained from recognizing both customary tenure regimes and women’s land rights  in statutory law, the two are not easily reconcilable. In most customary tenure regimes women’s land rights are secondary to and weaker  than those of men.  To begin to address this problem, women’s land tenure security must be understood broadly, and women must be empowered  to be agents of change for themselves, their families and their communities for improved tenure security to endure. The starting point is the belief that women’s land rights on customary land can be made more secure through an approach that starts with women. The conceptual basis for assessing women’s land tenure security, and for designing specific interventions to strengthen their land tenure security, is the Women’s Land Tenure Security Framework

 

Conflict sensitive responses to land problems among women

The survey had a total sample of 2,080 women. It sought to contribute to a better understanding of conflict sensitive responses among women to land and natural resources problems particularly whether their responses were driven by the desire to avoid the occurrence of conflict or the escalation of ongoing conflict, in particular whether conflict aversion and mitigation was a key characteristic of justice seeking behavior. The study demonstrated that women in Uganda adopted both collective and individual strategies to assert their claims to land, ranging from participation in the struggles around the Land Act amendments to taking their claims to court and purchasing land of their own. At the same time, women’s property rights were affected both by property rights law and by family law. The presence of ‘legal pluralism’ in Uganda and many other countries complicated legal rights, especially for women. Uganda being generally a patriarchal society, the status of women was  was found to be low with regard to property ownership, social positioning, having a voice and being heard. In desperation, the quest for better rights to land and natural resources degenerated into a ‘resistance’- manifest through acts regarded as unconventional to commonly acceptable behaviors of women.

 

Strengthening Women’s Land Rights in Northern Uganda

This project was to pilot an approach that relies on in-country institutional capacity to strengthen women’s land rights in a customary, post-conflict setting.  To develop, implement and test this pilot, Landesa partnered with WORUDET a civil society organization based in Pader but working in several other locations in Northern Uganda, and with Associates Research, a research organization based in Kampala that works on land and resource tenure issues. The project identified all the relevant stakeholders and followed a three-pronged approach that included: (i) training a mentoring a cadre of community-based facilitators on women’s rights to land, facilitation skills, and mediation and conflict mitigation; (ii) organizing groups of women who meet weekly and received training on women’s rights as well as skills that enabled them to gain confidence and become more assertive; and (iii) engaging relevant stakeholders and providing training as needed.

Piloting secure tenure options that enhance production and market access for smallholders

IMG_0169At the start of this project an inception process was initiated. The process involved VEDCO and ARU. The project aim was to pilot secure tenure options amongst smallholder farmers is part of the VEDCOs strive for equitable and sustainable improvement in household well being of both female and male farmers. The project itself sought to study the existing tenure options and pilot promotion of options that enhance secure tenure provided by the land reform process in Uganda among smallholder farmers in customary and registered tenure areas in Pader and Luweero Districts of Uganda through literature review and a baseline leading to design of a pilot that allows specific tenure options to be tried out in areas where they are most suitable.

Gender Land and Asset Survey-Uganda

International Center for Research on Women and Associates Research Uganda Limited. Developed and piloted as survey methodology for collecting and analyzing individual- and household level quantitative data on women’s rights over assets. The Gender, Land, and Asset Survey (GLAS) was one of the first studies to undertake a quantitative and gendered assessment of men’s and women’s rights over assets – including ownership, documentation, and degree of control over use, transfer, and transactions – and the implications thereof. Specifically, this study attempted to answer the following questions in the context of central Uganda:

  • What are the differences in women’s and men’s ownership, use, and decision- making over land, housing, material assets, livestock, and financial assets?
  • Which socioeconomic/structural factors influence women’s and men’s asset rights and in what ways?

Tenure in mystery: Status of Land under Wildlife, Forestry and Mining Concessions in Karamoja Region, Uganda

Tenure in Mystery collates information on land under conservation, forestry and mining in the Karamoja region. Whereas significant changes in the status of land tenure took place with the Parliamentary approval for degazettement of approximately 54% of the land area under wildlife conservation in 2002, little else happened to deliver this update to the beneficiary communities in the region. Instead enclaves of information emerged within the elite and political leadership, by means of which personal interests and rewards were being secured and protected. It is thus not surprising, to observe communities in Karamoja cursing the inconsiderate persons who drive Uganda Wild Authority for loose of community rights in favour of wild animals. All this while what is rightfully theirs is restored unto them but is unknown to them.

Property Rights Assessment in Amuru-Acholi Region, 2010

Historical narratives are essential to the determination of the status of tenure for land that was once home to “a wildlife migration corridor.” However, the differing accounts of events that took place and their implications, is not helped by the incomplete nature of records in the land registry, neither does the intricate legal framework that weaves significant and far reaching changes over the last 90 years depict a full image of status of tenure in the area. A ground proofing survey reveals claims on land that may hold a historical basis. However, a complete picture only comes together when a combination of the four (historical narratives, land registry, household survey and legal interpretation) is put together to show what rights and interests exist in the area proposed to site “a wildlife migration route”.

Escalating land conflicts in Uganda

Despite progress made to address land-related legislative issues, the land sector in Uganda faces several challenges that include insecurity of tenure, overlapping and conflicting land rights, and glaring inequity in access to and ownership of land. Conflicts that are a consequence of colonial legacy are exacerbated in the majority of cases by competition over access, use and transfer of scarce land and natural resources, ever increasing population densities, largely driven by the high population growth rate, unsustainable agricultural practices, and policy and institutional weaknesses. Possibility of increasing conflict is largely driven by competition for influence and power which comes with demonstrated control over land matters such as ownership, allocation and access especially as regards overlapping land rights.